misil

longevity

Method of Invariant Scientific Ideal Language

Constructed language.

Erkki Hartikainen 2013.

Last update 4/21/2013

Contents

  1. misil
  2. misil dictionary
  3. Lessons
    1. Lesson 1
    2. Lesson 2
    3. Lesson 3
    4. Lesson 4
    5. Lesson 5
    6. Lesson 6
    7. Lesson 7
    8. Lesson 8
    9. Lesson 9
    10. Lesson 10
    11. Lesson 11
    12. Lesson 12
    13. Lesson 13
    14. Lesson 14
    15. Lesson 15
    16. Lesson 16
    17. Lesson 17
    18. Lesson 18
    19. Lesson 19
    20. Lesson 20
    21. Lesson 21
    22. Lesson 22
    23. Lesson 23
    24. Lesson 24
    25. Lesson 25
    26. Lesson 26
    27. Lesson 27
    28. Lesson 28
  4. Summary
    1. Vowels
    2. Consonants
    3. Alphabet
    4. Orthography
    5. Diphtongs
    6. Logical connectors
    7. misil dictionary
    8. Parts of Speech
    9. Numbers
    10. Plural
    11. Personal pronouns
    12. Correlative table of particles
    13. Possessive particle
    14. Articles
    15. Nouns
    16. Adjectives and Adverbs
    17. Verbs
    18. Tenses
    19. Particles
    20. Comparison
    21. Commands & Wishes
    22. Compounding
    23. The Basic SVO Sentence
    24. Indirect Object
    25. Time words in a sentence
    26. Forming Questions
    27. Passive Voice
    28. Multiple Modifiers
    29. Complements and Adjuncts

misil dictionary

Lessons

Lesson 1

The Letters of the Alphabet

Lesson 2

Nouns, plurals, pronouns

Lesson 3

Verbs

Lesson 4

Adjectives and Adverbs

Lesson 5

Articles

Lesson 6

Numbers and Plurals

Lesson 7

Tenses

Lesson 8

The Correlative Table, Relative Clauses

Lesson 9

Particles, Comparison, Commands & Wishes

Lesson 10

Compounding

Lesson 11

Syntax: Word Order, Indirect Object, Forming Questions, Passive Voice, Multiple Modifiers

Prepositional Phrases: Indicative Complements, Prepositional Phrases

Lesson 12

Synonyms and antonyms

Lesson 13

Prefixes

Lesson 14

Prepositions

Lesson 15

Local grammatical cases

Lesson 16

Nominative and accusative

Lesson 17

Genitive

Lesson 18

All grammatical cases

Lesson 19

Transitive

Lesson 20

Partitive

Lesson 21

Abessive

Lesson 22

Essive

Lesson 23

Comitative

Lesson 24

Instructive

Lesson 25

Prolative

Lesson 26

Post-positions

Lesson 27

All pronouns

Lesson 28

The exact use of the important prepositions

Summary

Vowels

a, e, i, o, u, y.

Consonants

h, j, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, v

The names of the consonants end in "ee": (hee, jee, kee, lee, mee, nee, pee, see, tee, vee).

Alphabet

a, e, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, s, t, u, v, y

Orthography

MISIL uses 16 letters.

Letter IPA English
a /a/ most similar to a as in "father"
e /e/, /ɛ/ most similar to e as in "egg" or e as in "bet"
h /h/ h as in "hat", "ahoy"
i /i/ i as in "machine", ee in "bee"
j /j/ as in "yes"
k /k/ k as in "skin, skip"
l /l/ most similar to l as in "lamb"
m /m/ m as in "admit"
n /n/ n as in "analogy"
o /o/, /ɔ/ most similar to o as in "or"
p /p/ p as in "spin, spark"
s /s/ s as in "east"; also used in the digraph sh
t /t/ t as in "stake, stop"
u /u/ u as in "duma", "dugong" or oo in "moon"
v /v/ v as in "avoid"
y /y/
as ü in Germany

Diphtongs

(From Savo language)

aa
ae
ai
ao
au
ea
ee
ei
eo
eu
ey
ia
ie
ii
io
iu
iy
oa
oe
oi
oo
ou
ua
ue
ui
uo
uu
ye
yi
yy

Logical connectors

a = and, ∧
o = or (disjunction), ∨
u = or (xor -gate, either..or)
e = not, ¬
i = if...then, ⇒
y= if and only if, ⇔

misil dictionary

misil dictionary

Parts of Speech

Like Esperanto, Ido, and Angos misil uses a system of letter classifiers to designate a word's part of speech.

Classifier Part of Speech Example Example in English
-o natural noun ho
I
-a noun action (verb)
burn
-i noun quality (adjective)
small
-u noun action quality (adverb)
quickly
-e particle (prepositions, conjunctions, correlatives, and other adverbs)
to, at
-y number hy
one
Man-Made Example Translation
-os
computer mouse (man-made mouse)
-as
burn (by man-made means)
-is
small (by man-made means)
-us
quickly (by man-made means)

Numbers

hy = 1,
jy = 2,
ky = 3
ly = 4,
my = 5,
ny = 6,
py = 7,
sy = 8,
ty = 9,
vy = 0,
tesy = 10,
hehty = 100,
kily = 1000,
meky = 1000000,
kiky = 1000000000,
tely = 1000000000000,

Plural

le

Personal pronouns

Following the use of the noun ending -o

misil English
ho I, me
jo you
ko he/she/, him/her/
lo
it
le ho we, us
le jo you all
le ko they
le lo
plural of it

Correlative table of particles

Click here.

Possessive particle

ve = of(possession)

Example: ve ho = my

Articles

mislil has no articles (a, an, and the):

the house, a house

If something needs to be in a definite state, the words 'this' and 'that' can be used.

Nouns

In misil, any word that isn't a particle or number is based on a noun. This is because the meanings of basic nouns are similar in every natural language.

The nouns are split into two types: natural and man-made.

Man-made in this sense is anything created or processed by humans.

Natural nouns end in “o” and man-made nouns end in “os.”

This system allows you to assign more meanings to less roots.

Adjectives and Adverbs

Adjectives end in i and always go before the noun they describe. To create an adjective, think of a noun that has that quality and attach an i to the end of the root. For example, fire turns into firei. Depending on context, this can mean "hot", "red-orange", or even "quick-spreading" (as a wildfire).

Verbs

Verbs in misil end in a. If an action is done by humans or by man-made means and needs to be specified as such, the word ends in the man-made marker as.

Verbs are never conjugated for number or person, and they can all be used with or without direct objects.

Verbs in misil are ambitransitive; they can act transitively or intransitively depending on the presence of an object or prepositional phrase. Verbs do not conjugate for person, number, tense, aspect, or mood.

Tenses

Verbs do not change for tense. The particle me indicates the general past tense and the particle ke indicates the general future tense.

There is no perfect tense.

If a verb happened in a specific time period, the particles are not required, as it can be inferred from the context.

Particles

In misil, prepositions, conjunctions, and other modifers are classified as particles.

These particles all end in "e" and go before what they describe if applicable.

Comparison

Comparison uses particles.

Commands & Wishes

These particles are used to describe how the world ought to be; what should or shouldn't happen in relation to the speaker.

Deontic particles:

Compounding

A very important feature in misil is the compounding system. Compound words are endocentric, meaning the first root modifies the second root (like "doghouse" in English).

Compounds are formed by putting two roots together, separated by a dash:

(book) + (series) = (book series)

Words can be compounded as many times as necessary:

If a compound word would have a consonant cluster, an "e" sound can be placed in between the roots.

The Basic SVO Sentence

On this level, misil word order very closely matches English word order. "SVO" stands for "Subject-Verb-Object". For extremely simple sentences like "I love you" or "he eats glass," the word order of misil matches that of English, literally, word for word. Keep in mind that "SVO" doesn't include little details like articles (a, the, etc.) or prepositions (to, for, etc.).

Subject + Verb + Object

Adjectives, adverbs, and particles go before what they modify:

Subject.Modifiers - Subject - Verb.Modifiers - Verb - Object.Modifiers - Object

A big cat quickly ate a small mouse.

*The tense particles (me and ke) have priority over adverbs. (see "Multiple Modifiers" below)

Indirect Object

Indirect object phrases are formed with the preposition de, and are placed after the direct object.

Time words in a sentence

In misil, time words can appear in one of two positions in the sentence: either at the beginning of the sentence (before the subject), or directly after the subject. The structures are:

Time + Subject + Verb + Object

Subject + Time + Verb + Object 

Subject  +  Time when +   Manner +   Location   +  Instrument   +  Target   +  Verb phrase  +   Time duration

Forming Questions

Questions can be formed with the question particle se or an interrogative correlative (who, what, when, etc.).

An interrogative correlative demands an answer that matches its function in the sentence.

Passive Voice

Object-oriented sentences contain the particle te, placed immediately before the verb.

Multiple Modifiers

This is a list of priorities in case there is more than one modifier:

Nouns:

le + -ov- correlative + adjectives + noun

Verbs:

adverb + (se, nae) + (me, ke) + te + verb

Complements and Adjuncts

Indicative complements are required pieces of information and are always placed after the subject (as opposed to modifiers, which are placed before).

Adjuncts are extra pieces of information (in this case, prepositional phrases) that also go after whatever they modify